万万没想到,在美国吃个瓜居然这么危险……

作为一枚天天帮小伙伴深扒外媒消息的资深吃瓜小编,世纪君前两天看到美国那边的一则新闻,惊得手里的瓜都掉到地上摔成了八瓣……

事情是这样的:

这两天美国底特律的一个消防员被推到了风口浪尖上,这原因说起来有点“冤”,都是因为“吃瓜”……

据Fox 2 报道,41岁的消防队新人罗伯特·帕蒂森,带着个大西瓜作为新人入队给好队友的见面礼,还在西瓜上粘了个粉色的装饰小花(←真是有心)。

想不到大叔还暖萌暖萌的呢~

本来今天高高兴兴,结果瓜送到了却被告知:你被开除了!

原因就是……

这个大西瓜惹恼了消防队里的非裔美国人。

The rookie, 41-year-old Robert Pattison, brought the fruit topped with a pink bow to the Engine 55 firehouse – and quickly offended some African-American firefighters, FOX 2 reported.

罗伯特被开除,尽管他表示这个行为并非有意冒犯。

He was fired after the incident, which he claimed was not meant to be offensive, according to the news outlet.

“(带礼物)不是强制的,是自愿的。通常礼物是多纳圈,当然也可以想带啥就带啥。”

"It's not mandatory, it's voluntary," he says. "The usual gift is doughnuts, but you are allowed to bring whatever you want to bring in."

消防队负责人埃里克·琼斯表示:“底特律的消防部门里,对于歧视行为是零容忍的,帕蒂森的行为令人不满意,对于其他队员有冒犯行为,以及对种族问题不敏感。”

“There is zero tolerance for discriminatory behavior inside the Detroit Fire Department,” Fire Commissioner Eric Jones said in a statement, adding that Pattison “engaged in unsatisfactory work behavior which was deemed offensive and racially insensitive to members of the Detroit Fire Department.

“经过全面调查,最好的结果就是不再雇佣这名试用员工。”

“After a thorough investigation, it was determined that the best course of action was to terminate the employment of this probationary employee,” Jones said.

啥?我好心送个瓜,咋还把我开了?

所以科普时间到了:为啥送给非裔美国人西瓜=种族歧视?

来看《大西洋月刊》网站的解读:西瓜为何用来比喻种族主义

在传统的刻板偏见中,非裔美国人对西瓜非常热衷,这样的偏见逐渐成型有特殊的历史原因,并为特殊政治目的服务。美国内战时黑人奴隶得到解放,这种比喻才开始被用起来。获得自由的黑人种瓜、吃瓜、卖瓜,西瓜也成为了其自由的象征。而南方白人,认为黑人的自由是种威胁,而把西瓜污名化,贴上了不干净、懒惰、幼稚、不该出现在公众场合的标签。

The stereotype that African Americans are excessively fond of watermelon emerged for a specific historical reason and served a specific political purpose. The trope came into full force when slaves won their emancipation during the Civil War. Free black people grew, ate, and sold watermelons, and in doing so made the fruit a symbol of their freedom. Southern whites, threatened by blacks’ newfound freedom, responded by making the fruit a symbol of black people’s perceived uncleanliness, laziness, childishness, and unwanted public presence. 

上面这幅画就描绘了当时黑人在市集卖西瓜的情景。

那么西瓜为什么被贴上了这样的标签?《大西洋报》也做了详细的解释↓↓↓

不干净:因为吃西瓜的时候很狼狈;懒惰:因为种瓜太简单,而且吃西瓜不像其它水果,能边吃边干活——因为你得坐下吃;幼稚:西瓜是甜的、彩色的、没有太多营养价值;不该出现在公众场合:一个人很难吃掉一个西瓜。

The fruit symbolized many of the same qualities as it would in post-emancipation America: uncleanliness, because eating watermelon is so messy. Laziness, because growing watermelons is so easy, and it’s hard to eat watermelon and keep working—it’s a fruit you have to sit down and eat. Childishness, because watermelons are sweet, colorful, and devoid of much nutritional value. And unwanted public presence, because it’s hard to eat a watermelon by yourself.  

但是南方白人却不愿意看到黑人自由地吃瓜。原本奴隶们要按照白人奴隶主的要求吃瓜,但是黑奴解放运动明显打破了这层关系。

But Southern whites saw their slaves’ enjoyment of watermelon as a sign of their own supposed benevolence. Slaves were usually careful to enjoy watermelon according to the code of behavior established by whites. Emancipation, of course, destroyed that relationship. 

而自19世纪开始,美国也不断出现有关黑人与西瓜相关的报道,当然其中大多都是编造的。

1869年,这可能是第一幅讽刺黑人和西瓜的插画,来源Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

19世纪末期,coon song(有刻板印象的黑人音乐)开始流行,主要模仿嘲弄非裔美国人懒惰、没出息、幼稚。(来源布朗大学图书馆)

1915年,格里菲斯执导的白人至上主义电影《一个国家的诞生》上映,其中用一场西瓜宴来描绘黑人奴隶的解放,腐败的北方白人鼓励奴隶们停下工作去吃瓜。

D. W. Griffith’s white-supremacist epic film The Birth of a Nation, released in 1915, included a watermelon feast in its depiction of emancipation, as corrupt northern whites encouraged the former slaves to stop working and enjoy some watermelon instead. 

《大西洋月刊》评论称,给一个水果加诸如此含义有些愚蠢。而事实上,水果和种族主义也没有本质的关联。但是文化象征却能塑造我们看待人和世界的方式。

It may seem silly to attribute so much meaning to a fruit. And the truth is that there is nothing inherently racist about watermelons. But cultural symbols have the power to shape how we see our world and the people in it.

除了西瓜之外,在美国,还有一样我们司空见惯的食物也是敏感食物。

炸鸡!

当然,炸鸡并非种族主义,吃炸鸡也不算。

Fried chicken isn't racist. Eating fried chicken isn't racist. 

根据密苏里大学克莱尔·施密特的研究,这个源头同样要追溯到有关3K党建立的电影——《一个国家的诞生》上。

According to Claire Schmidt at the University of Missouri, it started with Birth of a Nation, the 1915 film on the founding of Ku Klux Klan. In one scene:

在一个桥段中,演员们塑造了一组无能的黑人官员,他们在立法大厅里举止粗俗吵闹。(传递给观众的信息是:让黑人投票是有危险的。)他们有些在狂饮,有些则把脚放在桌子上。而其中一人,在大吃炸鸡。

[A]group of actors portraying shiftless black elected officials acting rowdy and crudely in a legislative hall. (The message to the audience: These are the dangers of letting blacks vote.) Some of the legislators are shown drinking. Others had their feet kicked up on their desks. And one of them was very ostentatiously eating fried chicken.

施密特表示,“这样的形象,强化了白人对于黑人和炸鸡之间的关联。”

"That image really solidified the way white people thought of black people and fried chicken," Schmidt said.

所以……说出“大吉大利,晚上吃鸡”这样的口号时,还是慎重一些吧

好,科普结束,来看看消防员事件的后续吧~

被开除大叔的同事斯皮尔曼发了一个帖子,消防队的兄弟们在一起合影,表达了对帕蒂森的支持,值得注意的是,斯皮尔曼也是非裔美国人。

“想让所有人知道,他是个好人,出于好意。我们全体班组都支持他。特别是我们非裔美国人,就是这样。加油,兄弟。”

“Just want to let everyone know he’s a real amazing dude and it was all good intentions,” firefighter Tadarius Spearman wrote on a social media post. “And our ENTIRE class (is) supporting him in this. Especially us AFRICAN AMERICANS and that’s all that needs to be said. Stay up brother.”

所以,如果以后你请一位非裔美国人吃炸鸡、喝西瓜汁,也可能会遭遇突如其来的尴尬……

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